A Refutation of Islam

The following article exposing Islam was written by me. I read several books. This information is not copied and pasted from the Internet.

A REFUTATION OF ISLAM

Muslims deny the deity, death and resurrection of Christ. Consequently, they fall under the Anathema issued by St. Paul in Galatians 1:8-9:

"I marvel that ye are so soon removed from him that called you into the grace of Christ unto another gospel: Which is not another; but there be some that trouble you, and would pervert the gospel of Christ. But though we, or an angel from heaven, preach any other gospel unto you than that which we have preached unto you, let him be accursed. As we said before, so say I now again, if any man preach any other gospel unto you than that ye have received, let him be accursed." (St. Paul, Galatians 1:8-9).

Muhammad was once exhorted to test his teaching by the previous revelations of Jews and Christians. (Koran, Sura 10:94).

THE DEITY OF CHRIST

Muslims deny the deity of Christ and the fact he the Son of God. By doing so, they dishonor him and his teachings about himself. Muslims hold to the heresy of Dynamic Monarchianism, the view that Jesus was only a sinless prophet.

Sura 112 of the Koran states: ..."God, The Eternal, Absolute; He begetteth not, Nor is He Begotten:"

Sura 5:75: "They do blaspheme who say : 'God is Christ the son of Mary"...

Sura 5:75: "Christ  the son of Mary Was no more than An Apostle"...

Sura 10:68: "They say, 'God hath begotten A son'--Glory be to Him! He is self-sufficient...No warrant Have ye for this!"..

Christ is depicted as divine in the Old Testament. See Psalms 110:1; Isaiah 9:6; Zechariah 12:10; Micah 5:2; Daniel 7:13-14 (son of man in the clouds of Heaven. Compare Mark 14:62).

Jesus is called God in the New Testament. See John 1:1; 20:28; Romans 9:5; 1Corinthians 2:8; Acts 20:25; Hebrews 1:8; Titus 2:13; 2 Peter 1:1.

Jesus is the divine Son. Mark 12 (In the parable of the wicked tenants of the vineyard, Jesus refers to himself as the son). God called Jesus His Son in Mark 1:11. Jesus claimed to be the Son of God in Mark 14. Demons called Jesus the Son of God who could destroy them. (Luke 4:41; 8:28). Jesus claims to be God's Son in Matthew 11:27. 

Ancient non-biblical literature speaks of God's son. Dead Sea Scroll 4Q174 calls the Messiah the Son of God, who will build the temple. 4 Ezra 7:28-29 calls the Messiah God's son. In the first century Similitude's of Enoch the Messiah is portrayed as a godlike figure who existed with the Lord "prior to the creation of the world and for eternity." (1Enoch 48:6). 4 Ezra 13 reports a man rising out of the sea and God calls him "my Son." (13:32, 37).

The divinity of Christ in St. Mark's Gospel (Video).
 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R9Dt8yC7Gdg

For a thorough biblical treatment on the deity of Christ, see Robert Bowman's book, "Putting Jesus in His Place: The Case for the Deity of Christ."

 THE DEATH OF CHRIST

Islam contradicts the New Testament and history by denying the death of Christ. 

Sura 4:157-59: "That they said (in boast), 'We killed Christ Jesus The son of Mary, The Apostle of God'; --But they killed him not, nor crucified him, But so it was made To appear to them"...

The New Testament states numerous times that Jesus died on the cross (Rom. 5:8; 1 Cor. 15:3; 1Thess. 4:14). His death is reported in all four gospels (Matthew 27:50; Mark 15:37; Luke 23:46; John 19:30).

The Old Testament predicted that Christ would die (Isa. 53:5-10; Ps. 22:16; Dan. 9:26; Zech. 10:10). Jesus fulfilled the Old Testament prophecies about the Messiah (Matt. 4:14; 5:17-18; 8:17; John 4:25-26; 5:39).

Jesus stated that he was going to die (John 2:19-21; 10:10-11; Matt. 12:40; Mark 8:31)..

The predictions of Jesus' resurrection in the Old Testament and the New Testament are based on the fact that he would die (Ps. 16:10; Isa. 26:19; Dan. 12:2).

When on the cross, Jesus' was pierced in his side with a spear, and blood and water came out (John 19:34). When this occurs, it is medical proof that the person has already died.

In Luke 23:46, Jesus prayed "Father, into your hands I commend my spirit." Jesus's death cry was heard by those who stood by him (John 19:47-49).

Roman soldiers pronounced Jesus' death and they did not break his legs (see John 19:33).

The Governor Pilate checked to make sure Jesus was dead, and he granted the body to Joseph (Mark 15:44-45).

Medical experts who have examined the events surrounding Christ's death have concluded that he died. The American Medical Association declared: "the weight of historical and medical evidence indicates that Jesus was dead before the wound to his side was inflicted...Accordingly, interpretations based on the assumption that Jesus did not die on the cross appear to be at odds with modern medical knowledge." (See the article on Christ's death in the Journal of the American Medical Association, March 21, 1986, 1463.

Non-Christian historians and writers from the first and second centuries recorded Jesus' death. 

The Jewish historian, Josephus wrote: "Pilate, at the suggestion of the principal men among us, had condemned him to the cross." (Josephus, "Antiquities of the Jews" 18:3). 

The Roman historian, Cornelius Tacitus reported: "a wise man who was called Jesus...Pilate condemned Him to be condemned and to die." Tacitus also reported that Jesus' disciples "reported that He had appeared to them three days after His crucifixion and that He was alive." (Cornelius Tacitus, Annals, 15.44). 

According to Julius Africanus, the first century Palestinian historian, Thallus (A.D. 52), "when discussing the darkens which fell upon the land during the crucifixion of Christ," spoke of an eclipse. (see, Bruce, The New Testament Documents: Are They Reliable? p. 113). 

Lucian spoke of Christ as "the man who was crucified in Palestine because he introduced a new cult into the world." He called him the "crucified sophist." (Lucian, On the Death of Peregrine). 

The letter of Mara Bar Serapion (A.D. 73) is housed in the British Museum, and speaks of Christ's death. It asks, "What advantage did the Jews gain from executing their wise king?" (Bruce, The New Testament Documents: Are They Reliable? p. 114). 

The Jewish Talmud says, "on the eve of Passover they hanged Yeshu (of Nazareth)...Let everyone knowing aught in his defense come and plead for him. But they found naught in his defense and hanged him on the eve of Passover." (Babylonian Talmud (Sanhedrin, 43a, "Eve of Passover"). 

The Roman historian, Phlegon spoke of Jesus' death and resurrection in his Chronicles, "Jesus, while alive, was of no assistance to himself, but that he arose after death, and exhibited the marks of his punishment, and showed his hands had been pierced by nails." (Chronicles, as cited by Origen, 'Against Celsus" from The Ante-Nicene Fathers, trans. Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1976, vol. 4, 455). 

Phlegon mentioned 'the eclipse in the time of Tiberius Caesar, in whose reign Jesus appears to have been crucified, and the great earthquakes which then took place." (ibid).

Early Christian writers after the time of Christ spoke of his death on the cross. 

Polycarp, a disciple of the Apostle John stated: "our Lord Jesus Christ, who for ours sins suffered even unto death." (Polycarp, The Epistle of Polycarp to the Philipians, Chapter 1 in "The Apostolic Fathers,"  ed. A Cleveland Coxe, in Roberts and Donaldson, 33).

Ignatius was a friend of Polycarp, and he affirmed Jesus' death, saying "And He really suffered and died, and rose again." 

According to Ignatius, otherwise the apostles died in vain. He wrote ""But, (in truth) none of these sufferings were in vain; for the Lord was really crucified by the ungodly." (Ignatius, The Epistle of Ignatius to the Tarsians, Chapter 3 in "The Apostolic Fathers, ed. by A. Cleveland Coxe, in Roberts and Donaldson, The Ante-Nicene Fathers 107). 

In his "Dialogue With Trypho the Jew, Justin Martyr notes that the Jews of his time believed that "Jesus [was] a Galilean deceiver, whom we crucified." (Justin Martyr, Dialogue With Trypho).

Justin Martyr referred to the "Acts of Pontus Pilate" under whom  "nails were fixed in Jesus' hands and feet on the cross; and after he was crucified, his executioners cast lots for his garments." (Justin Martyr, First Apology, 35, in The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 1, 175).

The liberal theologian, Hans Kung writes: "the fact of the crucifixion, which according to all the earliest Christian, Jewish and pagan sources is historically indisputable and needs no proof." (Kung, Islam: Past, Present & Future, p. 498). 

John Crossan, co-founder of the liberal organization known as the Jesus Seminar, declared:“Jesus’ death by crucifixion under Pontius Pilate is as sure as anything historical can ever be. For if no follower of Jesus had written anything for one hundred years after his crucifixion, we would still know about him from two authors not among his supporters. Their names are Flavius Josephus and Cornelius Tacitus.” (Crossan, Jesus a Revolutionary Biography, p. 145).

We know from the research of Dr. Gary Habermas that 100 percent of New Testament scholars today, whether they are theologically conservative or liberal believe Jesus died by crucifixion. For more information on this, see his book, "The Case for the Resurrection of Jesus." Also, look at this article.

http://www3.telus.net/trbrooks/garyhabermas.htm

THE RELIABILITY OF THE NEW TESTAMENT DOCUMENTS

Muslims claim the New Testament is corrupted (tahrif bi' al-lafz). There is no manuscript or archaeological evidence supporting their view. Whenever anyone claims the New Testament was corrupted, ask them how much textual criticism they have studied.

The New Testament is the best attested work from the ancient world, with nearly 5700 Greek New Testament manuscripts. In addition to the Greek manuscripts there are numerous translations  from the Greek into Syriac, Coptic, Latin and other languages. In total, we have over 14,000 manuscripts of the New Testament. 

The late liberal New Testament scholar, John Robinson concluded that the Gospel record was written within the lives of the apostles, somewhere between 40 and 60 A.D. (see his book, Redating the New Testament). 

The German theologian, Eta Linnemann said that the position of negative New Testament criticism, which held the view that the N.T. manuscripts do not accurately preserve the words and deeds of Jesus is now defunct. The former student of Rudolph Bultmann writes:

"As time passes, I become more and more convinced that to a considerable degree New Testament criticism as practiced by those committed to historical-critical theology does not deserve to be called science." (Linnemann, Is There a Synoptic Problem? Rethinking the Literary Development of the First Three Gospels, p. 9).

G.D. Kilpatrick of Oxford said, "no one has so far shown that the New Testament is contaminated with the grammar or orthography [spelling] of a later period." (Wenham, Christ and the Bible, p. 179).

John Warwick Montgomery said: "the time interval between the writing of the New Testament documents as we have them and the events in Jesus' life which they record is too brief to allow for communal redaction [editing or tampering with] by the Church." (Montgomery, Where is History Going? p. 50).

John Warwick Montgomery also stated: "Modern archaeological research has confirmed again and again the reliability of the New Testament geography, chronology, and general history"...(see Montgomery, Human Rights and Human Dignity, pp. 143-144). 

John Wenham writes: "The interesting and important thing about the late-second-century text is this: at the early date there was already a wide diversity of variants. These variants were of course mostly quite minor in character, but they show that there had been no recent systematic editing of the documents to make them conform to some standard version." (Wenham, Christ and the Bible, p. 178).

Sir Fredrick G. Kenyon, director and principal librarian of the British Museum said about the existing Greek manuscripts of the New Testament: "The interval then between the dates of original composition and the earliest extant evidence becomes so small as to be in fact negligible, and the last foundation for any doubt that the Scriptures have come down to us substantially as they were written has now been removed. Both the authenticity and the general integrity of the books of the New Testament may be regarded as finally established." (as quoted in Montgomery, Where is History Going? p. 45).

I asked the New Testament scholar, Dr. Larry Hurtado to respond to the Muslim claim that the N.T. was corrupted. He replied: "The Muslim claim is religious propaganda, not scholarship. So, scholars don't reply to religious propaganda..." (Email). He directed me to the book, "The Early Text of the New Testament," By Hill and Kruger.

As for the book of Acts, the classical Roman historian, A.N. Sherwin White notes: "For the New Testament book of Acts, the confirmation of history is overwhelming...Any attempt to reject its basic historicity, even in matters of detail must now appear absurd. Roman historians have long taken it for granted." (Sherwin-White, Roman Society and Roman Law in the New Testament, p. 189).

There is no evidence that the New Testament message was destroyed or corrupted as Muslims claim. For further research, consult chapter 22 of "A General Introduction to the Bible," By Geisler and Nix, and "The Early Text of the New Testament," By Hill and Kruger.

For archaeological evidence for the reliability of the New Testament, see McRay, Archaeology and the New Testament; Thompson, The Bible and Archaeology, 3d ed, 308-438; Yamauchi, The Stones and the Scriptures: An Introduction to Biblical Archaeology, pp. 92-166. 

JESUS VS. APOSTLE PAUL

Muslims drive a wedge between Jesus and the Apostle Paul. They claim Paul corrupted Jesus' message. However, we know from Galatians 1-2 that Paul's message was checked and approved by the apostles. In 2 Peter 3:15, the Apostle Peter called Paul a beloved brother. Rather than give a detailed refutation of Islamic claims in this article, I will direct the reader to the following books: "The Origin of Paul's Religion," by Machen; "Paul and Jesus,' by Bruce; and "Paul and Jesus,' by Ridderbos.

WHO IS ALLAH?

The name "Allah" was known in pre-Islamic Arabia, and it had a feminine form, "Allat." (Jeffrey, Islam: Muhammad and His Religion, p. 85).

"Allah" is a proper name, applicable only to their [Arabs') peculiar God." (Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, ed. James Hastings (Edinburgh: T.&T Clark, 1908), I:326).

"Allah" is a pre-Islamic name...corresponding to the Babylonian Bel." (Encyclopedia of Religion, eds. Paul Meagher, Thomas O'Brian, Consuela Aherne (Washington D.C.: Corpus Pub., 1979), I:117).

"Allah was known to the pre-Islamic Arabs; he was one of the Meccan deities" (Encyclopedia of Islam (ed. Gibb), I:406).

"The origin of this (Allah) goes back to pre-Muslim times. Allah is not a common name meaning "God" (or a "god"), and the Muslim must use another word or form if he wishes to indicate any other than his own peculiar deity." (Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics (ed. Hastings), 1:326).

One of the names of the moon god in pre-Islamic Arabia, was "Allah." (see Guillaume, Islam, p. 7). 

Allah was married to the sun goddess, and together they had three daughters (Al-Lat, Al-Uzza, and Manat). (Morey, The Islamic Invasion, p. 50).

"Historians have said that Allah was actually the chief of the 360 gods being worshiped in Arabia at the time Muhammad rose to prominence. Ibn Al-Kalbi gave 27 names of pre-Islamic  deities...Interestingly, not many Muslims want to accept that Allah was already being worshiped at the Ka'ba in Mecca by Arab pagans before Muhammad  came. Muslims become angry when they are confronted  with this fact. But history is not on their side. Pre-Islamic literature has proved this." (G.J.O. Moshay, Who Is Allah? (Dorchester House, Bucks, UK, 1994) p. 138.

"The name Allah, as the Qur'an itself witness, was well known in pre-Islamic Arabia. Indeed, both it and its feminine form, Allat, are found not infrequently among the theophorous names in inscriptions from North Africa." (Arthur Jeffrey, ed., Islam: Muhammad and His Religion, (New York: The Liberal Arts Press, 1956), p. 85).


"Allah is a pre-Islamic name...." (Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, I:117).

"Allah is found...in Arabic inscriptions prior to Islam." (Encyclopedia Britannica, I:643).


"Allah was known to the pre-Islamic Arabs; he was one of the Meccan deities." (Encyclopedia of Islam, ed. Gibb, I:406).


"Ilah...apears in pre-Islamic poetry...By frequency of usage, al-ilah was contracted to allah, frequently attested to in pre-Islamic poetry." (Encyclopedia of Islam, eds. Lewis, Menage, Pellat, Schacht (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1971), II: 1093).


Allat: Astral and tutelary goddess. Pre-Islamic...One of three daughters of Allah." (Encyclopedia of Gods, p. 11).


"Manat: Goddess. Pre-Islamic...One of the so-called daughters of Allah." (Encyclopedia of Gods, p. 156).


"Allah: Originally applied to the moon; he seems to be preceded by Ilmaqah, the moon god...Allat: the female counterpart to Allah." (Dictionary of Non-Classical Mythology, p. 7).


"Allah: Before the birth of Muhammad, Allah was known as a supreme, but not sole, God." (Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, p. 48).


"The other gods mentioned in the Quran are all female deities: Al-Lat, al-Uzza, and Manat, which represented the Sun, the planet Venus, and Fortune, respectively; at Mecca they were regarded as the daughters of Allah...As Allah meant "the god", to Al-Lat means "the goddess." (Alfred Guilaume, Islam (Penguin, 1956) pp.6-7).


"Along with Allah, however, they worshiped a host of lesser gods and 'daughters of Allah." (Encyclopedia of World Mythology and Legend, I:61).


In his book,"Winning the War Against Radical Islam," Dr. Morey gives 52 scholarly references from places like Harvard, Cambridge, the University of Edinburgh, etc (and encyclopedias) proving that in pre-Islamic times Allah was only one of 360 gods married to the sun goddess, and there were three daughters, Al-Lat, Al-Uzza, and Manat.


The German scholar, Johannes Hauri writes: "Mohammad's monotheism was just as much a departure from true monotheism as the polytheistic ideas...Mohammad's idea of God is out and out deistic." (Quoted in Zwemer, Muslim Doctrines, p. 21).

"By the 19th century, because of the dominance of Islam in the Middle East, the word "Allah" was used as a generic name for deity in the Arabic Bible. This was done by British missionaries, who used "Allah" as a means to appease their Muslim oppressors and to escape death. But the time has come to correct their error and to tell the truth that "Allah" is a pagan name for a pagan god." (Morey, Winning the War Against Radical Islam, p. 142). 

Allah is Morally Defective, not the Greatest Conceivable Being (God)
  
The concept of God in Islam is not the same concept of God in Christianity. In order to be the greatest conceivable being, God must be all loving. The Bible teaches God loves all people, including sinners. According to the Koran, God does not love sinners or unbelievers."God does not love the unbelievers." (Sura 3:32). He is an enemy to unbelievers. In the Koran, God only loves those who first love him. So, his love rises no higher than the love Jesus said tax collectors and sinners had. They love those who love them. The Koran teaches that God does not love the very people that St. John said God loved so much, he sent his son to die for (John 3:16). St. Paul teaches: "when we were enemies, we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son." (Romans 5:10). Allah's love is partial and selective; and it has to be earned. It is conditional. The God of Muhammad is not the God of Jesus Christ, not the God of the Bible. I agree with Dr. William Lane Craig, that "The God of the Koran is a defamation of the Heavenly Father revealed by Jesus."  Allah is not the greatest conceivable being, because he is morally defective, and actually wills people to be damned.

That Christians and Muslims worship one God, does not mean we have the same God. Millions of women have one husband, but it would be fallacious to say they have the same husband.

WHO IS MUHAMMAD?

Muhammad was a superstitious and brutal human being.

Muhammad had a child bride named Aisha. She said, "The Prophet was engaged to me when I was a girl six years old...I was playing in a swing with some of my girl friends...Unexpectedly Allah's Apostle came to me in the afternoon and my mother handed me over to him. At that time I was a girl of nine years of age." (Bukhari, Hadith, vol. V, nos. 234).

Muhammad wanted all dogs killed.

Umar: Allah's Apostle ordered that the dogs should be killed. (Bukhari vol. IV, no. 540 Narrated Abdullah bib).

Muhammad was a false prophet. He prophesied that no one would be left on earth after one hundred years (Bukhari, I:539).

He taught Adam was 60 feet tall (Bukhari IV:543).

He taught that angels could not enter a house if there was a dog in it, and he taught black dogs are devils. So he ordered the death of dogs and forbade the selling of dogs. (Bukhari IV: 539, 540; and Muslim I:551, 552; II: 3803, 3829).

Satan lives in the human nose over night. But he can be flushed out if you snort water. (Bukhari IV:516; and Muslim I:462). Satan must be really big if not omnipresent to fit in all these noses.

He taught people turn into rats, pigs and monkeys (Bukhari IV: 524, 627; and Muslim IV: 7135. Abraham's father was also turned into an animal (Bukhari IV: 569).

According to Muhammad, Muslims have one intestine and non-Muslims have 7 (Bukhari III:5133-5115).

If you lift your eyes to Heaven when praying your eyes will be snatched out. (Bukhari III:862- 863).

A flies wing has poison but the other wing has the antidote. (Bukari IV:537).

Camels urine is medicinal so is should be drank. (Bukhari 1:234).

Fevers come from Hell and could be cooled by water. (Bukhari IV:483, 486). 

The Prophet said, 'Yawning is from Satan." (Hadith, vol. IV, no. 509--Narrated Abu Huraira 

He believed in the "evil eye" (see vol. 7, no. 636).

According to Muhammad, if a man cleans his private parts with stones, he should do it with an odd number of stones. (see vol. 1, no. 162).

He died his hair an orangish red color. (see vol. 1, no. 167).

He had eleven wives. "they were eleven in number." (vol. 1, no. 268). But Hadith no. 142, vol 7 contradicts that claim and says he had nine wives.

He had sex with slave girls that he purchased or that were given to him. (see vol. 7, nos. 22, 23).

Allegedly he reached up to the moon with a sword and cut it in half. (see vol. 4, nos. 830, 831, 832, vol. 5, nos. 208, 209, 210, 211 vol. 6, nos. 387, 388, 389, 390).

He was involved in the occult art of dream interpretation. (see vol. 2, no. 468 vol 9, nos. 111-171).

The Hadith says that at times Muhammad was bewitched and said and saw things under satanic inspiration. (see vol. 4, nos. 400, 490).

He was immoral. He took his daughter-in-law away from his adopted son Ali so she could be in his harem. (Surah 33:36, 38).

He referred to black people as "raisin heads." (see vol. 1, no. 662 and vol. 9, no. 256).

Muhammad tortured people by cutting off their hands and feet, burning out their eyes with hot irons. (vol. 1, no. 234). He left them to bleed to death after cutting off their limbs (see vol. 8, nos. 794, 795). He made people die of thirst. (see vol. 8, no. 796).

Muhammad said: "If somebody (a Muslim) discard his religion (of Islam), kill him." (vol. 4, no. 260).

He also taught: "In Paradise there is a pavilion made of a single hollow pearl sixty miles wide, in each corner there are wives who will not see those in the other corners; and the believers will visit and enjoy them" (vol. 6, no. 402). 

He taught that people are tortured in hell fire because they they soil themselves with urine. (see vol. 2, no. 443).

He believed stars were created by Allah as missiles to throw at the devils. (see vol. 4, chap. 3, p. 282). In pre-scientific Arabia, stars were believed to be small.

According to Muhammad, the angel Gabriel has 600 wings. (see vol. 6, no. 380).

He taught that if you have bad breath from eating garlic or onions, Allah will not hear your prayers. (see vol. 1, nos. 812, 813, 814, 815; vol. 7, nos. 362, 363).

He believed in good and bad omens such as the appearance of certain birds and animals. (see vol. 4, nos. 110, 111; vol. 7, nos. 648, 649, 650).

He was afraid evil spirits might enter his body when he urinated or defecated. So he prayed for special protection. (see vol. 1, no. 144).


He believed that if a person placed a green palm leaf on the grave of someone suffering in that grave, their pain would be lessened as it dried. (vol. 2, no. 443).


According to McClintock and Strong's encyclopedia, we gather from the oldest and most trusted narratives that Muhammad was an epileptic and was considered to be possessed by evil spirits. (Cyclopedia, 6:406).


Muhammad was short tempered. Since he claimed to be a prophet, a man once asked him where his lost camel was. The Hadith records that 


The Prophet got angry and his cheeks or his face became red. (vol. 1, no. 91).


He did not like when people questioned him about his claims to prophethood or revelation. He actually got angry with them. He said, 


Allah has hated you...[for] asking too many questions (vol. 2, no. 555; vol. 3, no. 3, no. 591).


When he was asked questions, the Hadith records:


The Prophet was asked about things which he did not like, when the questioner insisted, the Prophet got angry. (vol. 1, no. 92).


ISLAM IS NOT A RELIGION OF PEACE

Liberal Islam claims Islam is a religion of peace. They do not believe in the Koran or the Hadith. To see how violent Islam actually is, see the information provided through this link.

 https://papacyrefuted.blogspot.com/2019/03/islam-is-not-religion-of-peace.html


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AUXILIARY NOTES

Muhammad stated: "O ye who believe! Take not the Jews and the Christians For your friends and protectors: They are but friends And protectors To each other." (5:54).

"If anyone desires A religion other than Islam (submission to God), Never will it be accepted Of him; and in the Hereafter He will be in the ranks Of those who have lost  (All spiritual good)" (3:85).

But from one passage in the Koran it seems that Muhammad felt more fond of Christians than Jews (5:85).

The Allah of Islam is not the greatest conceivable Being. He is morally defective.

The Koran says "God does not love the unbelievers." (Sura 3:32).

Muhammad taught that God willed that there be disobedience. He said, "O Abu Bakr, if Allah Most High had not willed that there be disobedience, He would not have created the Devil." (Jeffrey, Islam, Muhammad and His Religion, pp. 149-150).

Al Ghazali was one of the most respected Muslim theologians of all time. He wrote of Allah: "He willeth also the unbelief of the unbeliever and the irreligion of the wicked"..."In creating unbelievers, in willing that they should remain in that state...in willing, in short, all that is evil, God has wise ends in view in which it is not necessary that we should know." (Abdiyah Akbar-Haqq, Sharing Your Faith with a Muslim, 152, taken from Hughe's Dictionary, 147).

An Islamic creed states: "And God Most High is the Creator of all actions of His creatures whether of unbelief or belief, of obedience or of rebellion: all of them are Willed of God and His sentence and His conclusion and His decreeing." (Taken from Al-Nasafi's creed as cited by Craig, in The Call of the Minaret, 60-61). 

The Koran teaches that God created us and what we do (Koran 37:94).

Muhammad said, "Any Jew or Christian who heard about me and did not believe in me and what was revealed to me of the Holy Qu'ran and any traditions, his ultimate destination is the Hell Fire." (See Muhammad Mushin Khan in his introduction  to The Translation of the Meanings of Sahih Al-Bukkari vol. 1, 56-61).

Sura 3:85: "If anyone desires A religion other than Islam (submission to God), Never will it be accepted  Of him; and in the Hereafter He will be in the ranks Of those who have  lost (All spiritual good).

The Nation of Islam denies the existence of the afterlife, and they hold to a Pantheistic view of God, contrary to Orthodox Islam.

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